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21/12/2009

Flashbacks of a Fool

Van zo'n anticlimax wordt iedereen depressief

Daniel Craig was een vrij onbekende naam tot hij in de schoenen stapte van James Bond in Casino Royale. Zijn bittere en droge Bond zette de standaard voor de actieheld. Een Bond-film later draagt Craig nu ook de film Flashbacks of a Fool. De film, gepresenteerd als een gelikt hedendaags drama, lijkt op het eerste gezicht een geslaagde spanningsboog te bevatten. Achter Flashbacks of a Fool gaat echter een anticlimax schuil die vloekt bij een veel te intense opbouw.



De uitgedoofde filmster Joe Scot ondervindt zekere problemen terwijl hij zoekt naar werk. Hij is te lui om zijn met cocaïne gevulde neus in nieuwe zaken te steken, en hoopt eigenlijk dat het werk hem wel op komt zoeken, wat niet helemaal het geval is. Scots huidige verhaallijn is echter een aanloop naar de terugblik op zijn jeugd, die ook niet helemaal op rolletjes verliep. Nee, hij woonde niet in een achterwijk en zijn moeder was geen alcoholiste, maar een lolletje was het voor Scot ook niet. We zien hem puberend een weg door het leven banen, met liefde, vriendschap en seks toe.
 
Flashbacks of a Fool scoort punten met een charismatische uitstraling, die mede gevormd wordt door de twee hoofdrolspelers. Dat Daniel Craig kan acteren, is oud nieuws; nieuw deze keer is Craigs jongere ik, Harry Eden. Zijn oppervlakkige maar eigenwijze uitstraling sluit goed aan bij het personage waar we via Craig aan voorgesteld zijn, wat de continuïteit en geloofwaardigheid een goede zet geeft. Al is Edens spel niet waterdicht, vergeleken met een groot deel van de rest van de cast is het meer dan prima. Het is wel betreurend dat ze hem af en toe in zulke apenpakjes hijsen.
 
De opzet van Joe's jeugd doet erg denken aan Nederlandse romans aan de kust: er wordt genoeg tijd vrijgemaakt om de omgeving te beschrijven en de Britse kust leent zich goed voor de geslaagde beelden. Filmisch ziet Flashbacks of a Fool er prima uit. Regisseur Baillie Walsh heeft ook het merendeel van het script in elkaar geflanst, en het is te merken dat de twee goed op elkaar aansluiten. Wat niet helemaal werkt, is hoe hij zijn eigen ervaringen en herinneringen probeert te vertalen naar filmvorm. Vaak komen deze kleine eerbetonen vreemd en klunzig over.
 
Flashbacks of a Fool is een film die heel spontaan over wil komen, en daar ook enigszins in slaagt. De spontaniteit echter gaat ten koste van motieven, uitdieping en bovenal een solide opbouw. De film werkt zich zo naar een anticlimax toe dat je het er zelf benauwd van krijgt. Qua spel steekt Flashbacks aardig in elkaar, maar niet genoeg om een onstevige structuur verder te helpen. Waar Flashbacks of a Fool melancholisch van spoor raakt, raakt hij ook kijkers kwijt; Walsh' achtergrond in het regisseren van videoclips komt hier goed naar voren en hij lijkt niet door te hebben dat een verhaal een zorgvuldig tempo nodig heeft om over te komen. 
 
Ook leuk: de schijf bevat naast een aardige transfer slechts ondertiteling.




DVD

15/12/2009

Dutch FilmWorks

16:9 Anamorphic Widescreen (2.35:1)

Dolby Digital 5.1 Engels

Nederlands

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?Carl Rogers
by By Saul McLeod published 2007. updated 2014
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow. but additional that for a person to "grow", they desire an environment that gives them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood).
Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not grow as they should, significantly like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water.
Rogers believed that every person can get their goals, wishes and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took spot. This was an individual of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology and for a person to succeed in their potential quite a few factors must be satisfied.
Self Actualization
" The organism has just one fundamental tendency and striving - to actualize, manage, and enhance the experiencing organism ” (Rogers, 1951, p. 487).
Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both of those psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do as within the way we perceive our situation. "As no 1 else can know how we perceive, we are the most desirable experts on ourselves."
Carl Rogers (1959) believed that humans have an individual elementary motive, that could be the tendency to self-actualize - i.e. to fulfill one's potential and acquire the highest stage of 'human-beingness' we can. Like a flower that will grow to its 100 % potential if the conditions are right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and access their potential if their environment is wonderful enough.
However, unlike a flower, the potential of your individual human is unique, and we are meant to produce in different ways according to our personality. Rogers believed that people are inherently reliable and creative. They become destructive only when a poor self-concept or external constraints override the valuing practice. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to accomplish self-actualization they must be inside of a state of congruence.
This suggests that self-actualization occurs when a person’s “ideal self ” (i.e. who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image ). Rogers describes an individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person. The main determinant of whether we will become self-actualized is childhood knowledge.
The Fully Functioning Person
Rogers believed that every person could generate their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When they did so self-actualization took spot. For Rogers (1961) people who are able be self-actualize, which is just not all of us, are called fully functioning persons. This usually means that the person is in touch with the in this article and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings, continually growing and changing.
In the majority of ways Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and a single that people do not ultimately acquire. It is wrong to think of this as an conclusion or completion of life’s journey; rather it serves as a routine of always becoming and changing.
Rogers identified 5 characteristics from the fully functioning person:
1. Open to expertise . equally positive and negative emotions accepted. Negative feelings are not denied, but worked through (rather than resorting to ego defence mechanisms).
two. Existential living . in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding prejudging and preconceptions. Being able to live and fully appreciate the current, not always hunting again to the past or forward to the long run (i.e. living with the moment).
3. Trust feelings . feeling, instincts and gut-reactions are paid attention to and trusted. People’s have decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices.
four. Creativity . creative thinking and risk taking are elements of the person’s life. A person does not engage in safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences.
5. Fulfilled life . person is happy and satisfied with life, and always seeking for new challenges and experiences.
For Rogers, fully functioning people are clearly adjusted, perfectly balanced and interesting to know. Often these kinds of people are big achievers in society. Critics claim that the fully functioning person is truly a product of Western culture. In other cultures, these types of as Eastern cultures, the achievement for the group is valued increased highly than the achievement of any one particular person.
Personality Progress
Central to Rogers' personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as "the organized, consistent list of perceptions and beliefs about oneself".
The self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person. The self is our inner personality, and may possibly be likened to the soul, or Freud's psyche. The self is influenced by the experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of those experiences. Two primary resources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others.
According to Rogers (1959), we just want to actually feel, know-how and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to every single other, the a good deal more consistent or congruent we are and then the higher our perception of self-worth.
A person is claimed to be inside of a state of incongruence if several of the totality of their adventure is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted while in the self-image.
The humanistic process states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept consists of three parts:
Self worth (or self-esteem ) - what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were being formed from the interaction from the child with the mother and father.
Self-image - How we see ourselves, which is important to reliable psychological health. Self-image comprises of the influence of our body image on inner personality. In a hassle-free degree, we may very well perceive ourselves as a proper or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an effect on how a person thinks, feels and behaves during the world.
Ideal self - This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic - i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not really the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
Self Worth and Positive Regard
Carl Rogers (1951) seen the child as having two fundamental needs: positive regard from other people and self-worth.
How we think about ourselves, our feelings of self-worth are of fundamental importance both of those to psychological health and to the likelihood that we can acquire goals and ambitions in life and reach self-actualization.
Self-worth may be seen as a continuum from very higher to very minimal. For Carl Rogers (1959) a person who has higher self-worth, that is definitely, has confidence and positive feelings about him or herself, faces challenges in life, accepts failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with people.
A person with small self-worth may avoid challenges in life, not accept that life is usually painful and unhappy at times, and will be defensive and guarded with other people.
Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and ended up formed from the interaction with the child with the mother and father. As a child grows more mature, interactions with significant others will affect feelings of self-worth.
Rogers believed that we might need to be regarded positively by others; we require to feel really valued, respected, treated with affection and loved. Positive regard is to do with how other people evaluate and judge us in social interaction. Rogers made a distinction involving unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard.
Unconditional positive regard is where parents, significant others (plus the humanist therapist) accepts and loves the person for what he or she is. Positive regard isn't really withdrawn if the person does something wrong or makes a mistake.
The consequences of unconditional positive regard are that the person feels no charge to try things out and make mistakes, even though this may lead to obtaining it worse at times. People who are able to self-actualize are alot more in all likelihood to have received unconditional positive regard from others, mainly their parents in childhood.
Conditional positive regard is where positive regard, praise and approval, depend upon the child, for example, behaving in ways that the parents think correct. Hence the child just isn't loved with the person he or she is, but on condition that he or she behaves only in ways approved by the parent(s).
In the extreme, a person who constantly seeks approval from other people is seemingly only to have expert conditional positive regard as a child.
Congruence
A person’s ideal self may not be consistent with what actually happens in life and experiences with the person. Hence, a difference may exist involving a person’s ideal self and actual go through. This is called incongruence.
Where a person’s ideal self and actual working experience are consistent or very similar, a state of congruence exists. Rarely, if ever, does a total state of congruence exist; all people working experience a certain amount of incongruence.
The event of congruence is dependent on unconditional positive regard. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to attain self-actualization they must be inside of a state of congruence.
According to Rogers, we would like to experience, go through and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self.
The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to every single other, the increased consistent or congruent we are plus the higher our perception of self-worth. A person is claimed to be inside a state of incongruence if a number of the totality of their go through is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted on the self-image.
Incongruence is "a discrepancy relating to the actual practical experience from the organism additionally, the self-picture with the individual insofar as it represents that working experience.
As we prefer to see ourselves in ways that are consistent with our self-image, we may use defense mechanisms like denial or repression in order to think less threatened by a number of what we consider to be our undesirable feelings. A person whose self-concept is incongruent with her or his real feelings and experiences will defend basically because the truth hurts.
Carl Rogers Quotes
"When I appearance in the world I'm pessimistic, but when I search at people I am optimistic."
"The very essence of your creative is its novelty, and hence we have no standard by which to judge it" (Rogers, 1961, p. 351).
"I have gradually come to just one negative summary about the sensible life. It appears to me that the quality life will not be any fixed state. It will not be, in my estimation, a state of virtue, or contentment, or nirvana, or happiness. It is not really a condition in which the individual is adjusted or fulfilled or actualized. To work with psychological terms, it isn't a state of drive-reduction, or tension-reduction, or homeostasis" (Rogers, 1967, p. 185-186).
"The brilliant life serves as a method, not a state of being. It is regarded as a direction not a destination" (Rogers, 1967, p. 187).
References
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its recent practice, implications and theory . London: Constable.
Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed while in the client-centered framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A study of the science. Vol. 3: Formulations in the person and also social context . New York: McGraw Hill.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a person: A psychotherapists look at of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin.
Rogers, C. R. Stevens, B. Gendlin, E. T. Shlien, J. M. & Van Dusen, W. (1967). Person to person: The problem of being human: A new trend in psychology. Lafayette, CA: Real People Push.
How to cite this article:
McLeod, S. A. (2014). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html write essay
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